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GRASS in Geomorphometry

Import and computing of DEMs

  • Grid-based DEMs in various formats can be imported using the command
  • Elevation data represented by digitised contours or measured points can be imported using the command that supports numerous vector formats
  • Data given as an ASCII list of (x, y, z) coordinates can be imported with
  • Very dense ASCII point data (e.g. from LiDAR), can be directly converted to raster using by performing a binning procedure based on different statistical measures (min, max, mean, range, etc.).

Useful commands


  • Grohmann, C., 2004. Morphometric analysis in geographic information systems: applications of free software GRASS and R? Computers & Geosciences, 30(9-10), pp.1055-1067.
  • Hengl, T. & Reuter, H.I., 2009. Geomorphometry : concepts, software, applications, Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Hofierka, J., Mitasova, H. & Neteler, M., 2009. Geomorphometry in GRASS GIS. In Developments in Soil Science. Elsevier, pp. 387-410. Available at:
  • Le Coz, M. et al., 2009. Assessment of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) aggregation methods for hydrological modeling: Lake Chad basin, Africa. Computers & Geosciences, 35(8), pp.1661-1670.