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GRASS in Geomorphometry

Import and computing of DEMs

  • Grid-based DEMs in various formats can be imported using the command
  • Elevation data represented by digitised contours or measured points can be imported using the command that supports numerous vector formats
  • Data given as an ASCII list of (x, y, z) coordinates can be imported with
  • Very dense ASCII point data (e.g. from LiDAR), can be directly converted to raster using by performing a binning procedure based on different statistical measures (min, max, mean, range, etc.).

Useful commands


  • Grohmann, C.H., 2004. Morphometric analysis in geographic information systems: applications of free software GRASS and R. Computers & Geosciences, 30(9-10), pp.1055-1067.
  • Grohmann, C.H., 2005. Trend-surfaces analysis of morphometric parameters: A case study in southeastern Brazil Computers & Geosciences, 31, 1005-1014.
  • Grohmann, C. H.; Riccomini, C. & Alves, F. M. , 2007. SRTM-based morphotectonic analysis of the Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Massif, southeastern Brazil Computers & Geosciences, 33, 10-19.
  • Grohmann, C. H. & Riccomini, C., 2009. Comparison of roving-window and search-window techniques for characterising landscape morphometry Computers & Geosciences, 35, 2164-2169.
  • Grohmann, C. H.; Smith, M. J. & Riccomini, C., 2010. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 49, 1200-1213.
  • Grohmann, C. H.; Riccomini, C. & Chamani, M. A. C., 2011. Regional scale analysis of landform configuration with base-level (isobase) maps Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 1493-1504.
  • Hengl, T. & Reuter, H.I., 2009. Geomorphometry : concepts, software, applications, Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Hofierka, J., Mitasova, H. & Neteler, M., 2009. Geomorphometry in GRASS GIS. In Developments in Soil Science. Elsevier, pp. 387-410. Available at:
  • Le Coz, M. et al., 2009. Assessment of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) aggregation methods for hydrological modeling: Lake Chad basin, Africa. Computers & Geosciences, 35(8), pp.1661-1670.