Vector topology cleaning
Q: What would be the 'recommended' way of dealing with the 'errors' found in vector data which were created with zero topological restrictions (and saved as .shp?)
A: For import, try to find a snapping threshold forthat produces an error-free output (during import the module suggests a threshold). Ideally the output would not only be error-free, but the number of centroids would match the number of input polygons (both are reported by v.in.ogr). The min_area option of v.in.ogr could also help. The bulk of the cleaning should be done by v.in.ogr. After that, removing small areas with v.clean ... tool=rmarea, threshold in square meters, could help.
Example: For data which are mainly based on Landsat data, a threshold of 10 square meters could remove artefacts and preserve valid areas (Landsat pixel size is about 90 square meters). The threshold needs to be empirically determined.
Note: there might not be a standard procedure that works for all data sources.
Cleaning large network datasets
Q: How can I speed up topologial cleaning () in GRASS 6 for large network datasets (for example OpenStreetMap data)?
A: The improvedversion in GRASS 7 is way faster. Here some hints though:
GRASS 6: When breaking lines it is recommended to
- split the lines first in smaller segments with using the vertices option. Then,
- run with 'tool=break'. After that,
- use to merge lines again.
GRASS 7: Here this has become much easier. Usewith the -c flag and 'tool=break' and 'type=line'. The 'rmdupl' tool is then automatically added, and the splitting and merging is done internally.
Cleaning patched polygons
Q: How can I patch to fitting area maps with have been digitized separately and correct the topology? I observe that the shared polygon boundaries do not perfectly match... I need to clean topology.
A: You can usefor this.
Tools to consider:
- the threshold (in map units) should be very small
v.in.ogr natural_earth/ne_110m_admin_0_countries.shp out=country_boundaries snap=0.0001 TODO: FIX THIS
Polygon import from SHAPE file
- In recent GRASS GIS versions, snapping thresholds for unclean polygons are suggested to the user when using v.in.ogr
- If the input polygons are supposed to not overlap each other, the number of centroids should be identical to the number of input polygons. If not the case, more topological cleaning is needed.
- If the input polygons have logical errors, for example when the same landuse polygon is present more than once, this can not be cleaned automatically with v.in.ogr or v.clean. You can investigate overlapping areas in the imported vector with 'd.vect type=area layer=2' (only overlapping areas have a category in layer 2 after import).
Q: How about self-intersecting lines and boundaries?
A: In the GRASS GIS topological model self-intersecting lines are allowed, self-intersecting boundaries are not. Self-intersecting lines are ok e.g. formodules, e.g. to represent a bridge of a secondary road over a highway.
Note: There are some modules that do not like self-intersecting lines, e.g withproblems are expected.
Q: I've imported a shapefile with 6842 input polygons and after importing (with 1e-12 snapping threshold) there are 6800 centroids. Further cleaning does not change the topology. Why?
A: It could be that some of the input polygons are exact duplicates. v.clean can remove them.
Q: Can I ignore the areas without centroids?
A: Yes, these are typically holes in polygons (islands).