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3D raster map (voxel) processing in GRASS

GRASS GIS is one of the few GIS with volume data support. Here data are stored as a 3D raster with a unit volume called a voxel (volume pixel). Voxels are designed to support for example representations of trivariate continuous fields.

Import or creating of volumes

You can import 3D ASCII raster data in GRASS voxel format using r3.in.ascii. You can also create a volume raster model based on 2D raster data by converting 2D raster slices into 3D raster or a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster maps.

See the raster3dintro for more details.

Voxel operations

Powerful 3D map algebra is implemented in r3.mapcalc.

A 3D groundwater flow model is implement in r3.gwflow.

Cross-sections can be generated with r3.cross.rast.

Voxels can be interpolated from 3D point dat from v.vol.rst.

Voxel statistics

Volume statistics can be calculated with r3.stats and r3.univar.


The nviz viewer supports voxel visualization. As an alternative, you can use the external Paraview application, see GRASS and Paraview:

3D groundwater flow
3D groundwater flow