Compile and Install/ko

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Disclaimer: 여기서는 GRASS GIS 소스코드를 다양한 운영 체계에서 수행 가능한 이진 팩키지로 변환 ("컴파일")하는 방법을 설명합니다. 만약, 당신이 바로 사용할 수 있는 이진 팩키지를 원한다면, 다음 사이트 here를 방문하십시오, 그렇지 않다면, 계속하시기를 바랍니다 ...

어떻게 GRASS 6을 컴파일 및 설치할 것인가?

Here we explain the procedure to compile GRASS from SVN, but it also applies to official GRASS 6 releases.

For installation of precompiled binary packages, see the main Installation Guide.

For detailed information on compilation, please see the INSTALL file in the source code.

Prerequisites선수 요건

Extra libraries 기타 라이버러리

GRASS needs at least two extra libraries: PROJ and GDAL/OGR

Note: if you want to have DBMS support in GDAL (subsequently in GRASS) you have to perform the "Optional" steps below as well.

You have to install these two libraries first (see below how to get them precompiled for your system).

It is easiest to obtain a prepackaged version of these libraries (e.g., .rpm; .deb) for your particular operating system and run the corresponding package installation (e.g., rpm -Uhv packagename.rpm; apt-get) in a terminal window. Take care to also install the development packages of these libraries (...-devel packages). If there is no prepackage version, then you will have to download the source code (see links above, source code packages usually ends in .tar.gz or .zip) and compile it (you must have a C compiler installed as part of your operating system). The Web sites show the steps to compile the libraries.

Other libraries needed to run GRASS are listed on the requirements page.

To compile, you will also need the respective "-devel" packages.

GRASS GIS 소스 코드 내려 받기 source code

Then download the GRASS GIS source code of course.

일반적인 컴파일 및 설치 과정 Generic Compilation and installation procedure

  • It is wise that compilation processes are carried out as a normal user: If you want to get the source code in a place where you do not have write permissions (e.g. in /usr/local/src/) just follow this:
     cd /usr/local/src/ 
     su -c 'mkdir grass6'
     su -c 'chown yourlogin:yourgroup grass6'

Otherwise if you have permissions just continue as a normal user:

     cd /usr/local/src/
     svn checkout ...
  • do a code checkout from the SVN source code repository
checkout the latest GRASS 6.x from SVN (see: [1])
  • in the grass6 directory, you will find the precious INSTALL file, open it with your favourite pager/editor and read it carefully!
  • run configure with parameters to adapt the compile process to your own system. To see what options can be passed to it, run:
./configure --help | less 

It may (!) look like this:

     ./configure \
         --with-cxx \
         --with-sqlite \
         --with-postgres-libs=/usr/include/pgsql/libpq \
         --with-postgres-includes=/usr/include/pgsql \
         --with-freetype \
         --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
         --with-motif \

You may have to explicitly state the path for certain packages (i.e., gdal). The Unix 'locate' command will come in handy for finding the path of the package you need (you may have to run locate as root ex: sudo locate gdal-config).

Please note that the paths mentioned may widely vary due to the distribution used. See Platform Specific Notes below.

Depending on your needs it may be a good idea to include debugging hooks.

See GRASS_Debugging#Compile_Time_Setup.
CFLAGS="-ggdb -Wall -Werror-implicit-function-declaration" ./configure ...

At the end of configuration process you should get report not much different from this:

GRASS is now configured for: i686-pc-linux-gnu

Source directory:            /usr/src/grass6
Build directory:             /usr/src/grass6
Installation directory:      /usr/local/grass-6.3.svn
Startup script in directory: ${exec_prefix}/bin
C compiler:                  gcc -g -O2 
C++ compiler:                c++ -g -O2
FORTRAN compiler:            
Building shared libraries:   yes
64bit support:               no

 NVIZ:                       yes

 BLAS support:               no
 C++ support:                yes
 DWG support:                no
 FFMPEG support:             no
 FFTW support:               yes
 FreeType support:           yes
 GDAL support:               yes
 GLw support:                no
 LAPACK support:             no
 Large File Support (LFS):   no
 Motif support:              no
 MySQL support:              no
 NLS support:                no
 ODBC support:               no
 OGR support:                yes
 OpenGL(R) support:          yes
 PNG support:                yes
 PostgreSQL support:         yes
 Readline support:           no
 SQLite support:             no
 Tcl/Tk support:             yes
 TIFF support:               yes
 X11 support:                yes
  • Let's compile it (takes a little while...)!
  • At the end, you should get report not much different from this:
Following modules are missing the 'description.html' file in src code:
GRASS GIS compilation log
Started compilation: Ne kvě 28 13:18:43 CEST 2006
Errors in:
Finished compilation: Ne kvě 28 13:43:40 CEST 2006
(In case of errors please change into the directory with error and run 'make')
  • If there is any error, change directory to directory with error and run "make" again. Report occuring bug to grass mailing list
  • Once the installation process is finished, you're ready to install GRASS system wide.
     su -c 'make install'
  • enjoy GRASS:

What else부수적인 사항?

If you want to use QGIS, then also compile the GRASS-GDAL/OGR plugin. This is also useful to access your GRASS-data from other application using GDAL/OGR like thuban.

Compile and install GDAL-GRASS plugin

Platform Specific Notes



Read the instructions here:
  # first install PROJ, GDAL, etc.
  cd grass64/
  # follow instructions in debian/README.debian
  fakeroot buildpackage
 svn co svn://


 svn co svn://<GRASS Version>
GRASS 6.1 on Debian Sarge
GRASS 6.4 on Debian Lenny

Install needed packages:

 apt-get install flex bison libreadline-dev libncurses5-dev lesstif2-dev debhelper dpatch libtiff4-dev \
         tcl-dev tk-dev libfftw3-dev libxmu-dev libfreetype6-dev autoconf2.13 autotools-dev doxygen \
         libmysqlclient15-dev graphviz libsqlite3-dev python-wxgtk2.8 libcairo2-dev libwxgtk2.8-dev \
         python-dev libgdal1-dev  libgdal1-1.5.0 libproj-dev libproj0 proj-data mysql


 ./configure \
 --with-cxx \
 --with-sqlite \
 --with-postgres --with-postgres-includes=/usr/include/postgresql \
 --with-mysql --with-mysql-includes=/usr/include/mysql --with-mysql-libs=/usr/lib/mysql \
 --with-odbc \
 --with-cairo \
 --with-proj-share=/usr/share/proj \
 --with-tcltk-includes=/usr/include/tcl8.4/ \
 --with-freetype --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
 --with-motif --with-fftw --with-nls --with-python




 sudo make install
GRASS 7 on Debian Squeeze

Install needed packages:

apt-get install flex bison debhelper dpatch autoconf2.13 autotools-dev python-dev \
    g++ gcc gettext graphviz libcairo2-dev libfftw3-dev libfreetype6-dev \
    libgdal1-1.6.0 libgdal1-dev libglu1-mesa-dev libglw1-mesa-dev \
    libncurses5-dev libproj-dev libreadline-dev libsqlite3-dev libtiff4-dev \
    libwxgtk2.8-dev libxmu-dev libxmu-headers libxt-dev mesa-common-dev \
    proj-bin python-numpy python-wxgtk2.8 subversion wx-common zlib1g-dev

Download source code:

svn checkout grass_trunk


CFLAGS="-g -Wall -Werror-implicit-function-declaration -fno-common -Wextra -Wunused" \
CXXFLAGS="-g -Wall"  \
 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
 --with-gdal --with-proj --with-proj-share=/usr/share \
 --with-glw --with-nls --with-readline \
 --without-tcltk \
 --with-cxx \
 --enable-largefile \
 --with-freetype --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
 --with-sqlite \
 --with-cairo --with-python=/usr/bin/python2.6-config --with-wxwidgets \
 --with-geos --with-pthread




 sudo make install

The above Debian notes will probably work with Ubuntu as well.

A more specific page towards Ubuntu is being written on.

Ubuntu 6.06, 7.10
  • is script designed to automate most of the download, configuration and compilation of GRASS 6.x-CVS
    • it is advised use checkinstall (sudo apt-get install checkinstall) instead of make install to keep track of installed software
    • Think twice before using this script. Some users experienced problems such as disabled XGL etc.
  • Here is another of these scripts, it's homemade so probably you'll find the above more useful for production sites.
Ubuntu 7.10 64-bit
  • Compiling latest GRASS source code on a 64-bit machine (with an ATI graphic card) under Ubuntu 7.10 64-bit with support for: 64-bit, SQLite, OpenGL, PYTHON, FFMPEG

(Based on "Ubuntu 6.06 LTS - GRASS 6.1 Compilation Script" by David Finlayson) Assuming it is the first time attempting to compile GRASS' source code & installing SVN, PROJ, GDAL/OGR


sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
  • install dependencies for compiling (in general) and dependencies for GRASS: PROJ, GDAL/OGR
sudo apt-get install grass build-essential flex bison libncurses5-dev zlib1g-dev \
libgdal1-dev libtiff4-dev libgcc1 libpng12-dev tcl8.4-dev tk8.4-dev fftw3-dev \
libfreetype6-dev libavcodec-dev libxmu-dev gdal-bin libreadline5 libreadline5-dev \
make python-dev python-wxversion
  • install SQLite
sudo apt-get install sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev
  • install SVN
sudo apt-get install subversion
  • create a directory as a simple user where source code(s) are going to be stored (in our example we use a directory called src under /usr/local)
sudo mkdir /usr/local/src
  • grant rwx (read-write-execute) permissions for our userid/ groupid on the directory (replace words userid and groupid with real userid):
sudo chown userid:groupid /usr/local/src
sudo chmod ug+rwx /usr/local/src
  • download latest source code from GRASS SVN repository in a directory on the system (e.g. /usr/local/src)
svn checkout grass_trunk
  • Above command places GRASS' source code in /usr/local/src/grass_trunk. In case of a subsequent update use the command: svn up from within the grass_trunk directory

Before attempting to compile GRASS, READ section (C) in the INSTALL file located in the main directory of GRASS source code entitled: (C) COMPILATION NOTES for 64bit platforms

  • installing FFTW3 if not already on system
sudo apt-get install fftw3 fftw3-dev


Note: Back in Ubuntu 7.10, installing ffmpeg through the repositories wouldn't work with grass. The following steps were successfully used.

svn checkout svn:// ffmpeg
  • install dependencies
sudo apt-get install liblame-dev libfaad2-dev libfaac-dev libxvidcore4-dev \
     liba52-0.7.4 liba52-0.7.4-dev libx264-dev libdts-dev checkinstall \
     build-essential subversion
  • guide to ffmpeg directory
cd ffmpeg

if necessary: make distclean before configuration (look at notes below)

  • configuration (note: the configuration parameter "--enable-pp" does not work anymore)
# configure FFMPEG
./configure --enable-gpl --enable-libvorbis --enable-libtheora \
            --enable-liba52 --enable-libdc1394 --enable-libgsm \
            --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libfaad --enable-libfaac \
            --enable-libxvid --enable-pthreads --enable-libx264 \
  • compilation
  • installation on /usr/local/bin -- important to remember when configuring GRASS' source code for compilation
sudo checkinstall

Go for GRASS!

  • in our example we used the /usr/local/src directory to store GRASS' source code, so:
cd /usr/local/src/grass_trunk
  • configuration
 CFLAGS="-g -Wall" ./configure --enable-64bit \
       --with-libs=/usr/lib64 --with-cxx --with-freetype=yes \
       --with-postgres=no --with-sqlite=yes --enable-largefile=yes \
       --with-tcltk-includes=/usr/include/tcl8.4 \
       --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
       --with-opengl-libs=/usr/include/GL --with-readline \
       --with-python=yes --with-ffmpeg=yes \
  • if OpenGL fails then maybe it is necessary to link glxATI.h with glx.h and re-run the configuration
cd /usr/include/GL
sudo ln glxATI.h glx.h
  • compilation
  • compilation is expected to end with a statement similar to the following:
Started compilation: Wed Feb 27 00:24:36 CET 2008
Errors in:
No errors detected.
  • installation
sudo checkinstall
  • launch 64-bit GRASS.6.4.svn


  • in case of errors in future compilation attempts, remember to remove program binaries with
make clean
  • and the files created with the "configuration" from previous compilations with
make distclean
Ubuntu 8.04 and above

Installation of dependencies (urpmi will ask you a few more):

Mandriva 2009: (take out the '64' everywhere if you are on 32bit)

 # as root
   urpmi flex bison zlib-devel tiff-devel png-devel tcl-devel tk-devel sqlite3-devel \
         mesagl1-devel mesaglu1-devel lib64xmu6-devel gcc-c++ gettext \
         lib64wxgtk2.8 lib64wxgtk2.8-devel lib64wxgtkgl2.8 wxgtk2.8 \
         lib64wxPythonGTK2.8 lib64wxPythonGTK2.8-devel wxPythonGTK wxPythonGTK-wxversion

Mandriva 2010: (take out the '64' everywhere if you are on 32bit) - see also SPEC file

 # as root
   # installation of PROJ and GDAL
   urpmi proj proj-devel gdal gdal-devel gcc-gfortran lib64openssl1.0.0 \
         lib64openssl1.0.0-devel postgresql8.4-devel lib64pq8.4

   # installation of compilation environment
   urpmi flex bison zlib-devel tiff-devel png-devel tcl-devel tk-devel sqlite3-devel \
         lib64mesagl1-devel lib64mesaglu1-devel lib64xmu6-devel gcc-c++ gettext \
         lib64wxgtk2.8 lib64wxgtk2.8-devel lib64wxgtkgl2.8 wxgtk2.8 \
         lib64wxPythonGTK2.8 lib64wxPythonGTK2.8-devel wxPythonGTK wxPythonGTK-wxversion

Then, to configure GRASS, run (64 bit stuff optional of course):

 #  as user
 ./configure \
   --enable-64bit --with-libs=/usr/lib64 \
   --with-cxx \
   --with-gdal=/usr/local/bin/gdal-config \
   --with-sqlite \
   --with-nls \
   --with-python \
   --with-wxwidgets=/usr/lib/wxPython/bin/wx-config \
   --with-fftw \
   --with-ffmpeg --with-ffmpeg-includes="/usr/include/libav* /usr/include/libpostproc /usr/include/libswscale" \
   --with-motif \
   --with-mysql --with-mysql-includes=/usr/include/mysql --with-mysql-libs=/usr/lib64 \
   --with-freetype --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
  # compilation (use -j2 ior -j4 parameter on multi-core CPUs to accelerate):   


   # this will install into /usr/local/
   make install

Note: CentOS 5 comes with Python 2.4 which lacks python-config, hence two extra tweaks are needed.


 yum install flex bison zlib-devel  tcl-devel tk-devel gcc-c++ gettext \
             libtiff-devel libpng-devel sqlite-devel \
             mesa-libGL-devel mesa-libGLU-devel mesa-libGLw-devel \
             mesa-libOSMesa-devel libXmu-devel python-devel gtk2-devel\
             ncurses-devel postgresql-devel

Compile and install PROJ4:

# get source code and unpack:
tar xvfz proj-4.7.0.tar.gz 
rm -f proj-4.7.0.tar.gz 
cd proj-4.7.0/

# get and install datum files into right directory:
cd nad/
rm -f
cd ..

# configure and compile
sh configure
make -j4

# install (may require "root" permissions, use "su"):
make install

Compile and install GDAL:

# get source code and unpack:
tar xvfz gdal-1.6.3.tar.gz 
rm -f gdal-1.6.3.tar.gz 
cd gdal-1.6.3/

# configure and compile
sh configure
make -j4

# install (may require "root" permissions, use "su"):
make install

# add /usr/local/lib/ to LD_LIBRARY_PATH, requires "root" permissions:
su - 
echo "/usr/local/lib" > /etc/

# test installation by running

GRASS 7 compilation and installation, here 64bit example:

1. Download wxGTP and wxPython:


 # Install:
 rpm -Uhv wxPython- wxPython-devel- \
          wxGTK-2.8.9-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm wxGTK-devel-2.8.9-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm

2. Also required is the python library python-dateutil. As root user run:

  yum install python-dateutil  

3. Download and configure GRASS 7 (suggestion: save this as script). Note that PROJ4 and GDAL must be compiled first:

./configure \
 --with-libs=/usr/lib64 \
 --with-cxx \
 --without-ffmpeg \
 --with-gdal=/usr/local/bin/gdal-config \
 --without-odbc \
 --with-sqlite \
 --with-postgres \
 --without-mysql \
 --with-nls \
 --with-python \
 --with-cairo \
 --with-wxwidgets=/usr/bin/wx-config \
 --without-fftw \
 --with-freetype --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
 --enable-largefile \

4. Add manually the path to the python include directory since python-config isn't there:

  # edit include/Make/Platform.make
  # and add manually the line

  PYTHONINC           = -I/usr/include/python2.4

5. Compile

  or on multicore (number depends of available cores):
   make -j4

6. Either install with "make install" (as root user) or run directly from compile directory (substitute ARCH with i586 or x86_64):

   bin.$ARCH/grass70 -wx
 ./configure \
   --with-freetype=yes --with-freetype-includes="/usr/include/freetype2/"

See also


Preparation for the compilation of GRASS GIS source code (F16, F17, F18):

 yum install proj-devel gdal-devel sqlite-devel ffmpeg-devel mesa-libGL-devel \
             mesa-libGLU-devel libXmu-devel libX11-devel tcl-devel tk-devel \
             fftw-devel libtiff-devel lesstif-devel python-devel numpy wxPython wxGTK-devel \
             gcc gcc-c++ bison flex ncurses-devel proj-epsg proj-nad xml2 python-dateutil

Note 1: that currently gdal-devel has (too) many dependencies and will lead to a massive download of extra packages (200 on a fresh Fedora 16 install).

Note 2: the optional ffmpeg-devel comes from the rpmfusion-free repository (configuration).

Download the source code:

Configure: This is an example how to configure the source code on a Fedora system:

 ./configure \
  --with-cxx \
  --with-gdal=/usr/bin/gdal-config \
  --with-proj --with-proj-share=/usr/share/proj \
  --with-sqlite \
  --with-nls \
  --with-wxwidgets=/usr/bin/wx-config \
  --with-fftw \
  --with-python=/usr/bin/python-config \
  --with-freetype --with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
  --enable-largefile \

Note: An effective (but not fast) way of getting dependencies is to decide what to enable in the configuration, and then run ./config and see which files are missing. The package providing it can be found via:

yum provides */<name of the file>

and then install them with your favourite package manager frontend or yum itself.

Extra: If you also want FFMPEG support:

It requires 'yum install fftw-devel'. Then add to the configuration lines above:

    --with-ffmpeg --with-ffmpeg-includes="/usr/include/ffmpeg /usr/include/ffmpeg/libav* /usr/include/ffmpeg/libpostproc /usr/include/ffmpeg/libswscale" \

Finally compile the configured source code:

  or on multicore (number depends of available cores):
   make -j4
   make install # requires root permissions unless you become owner of /usr/local/

Then use GRASS GIS and enjoy!


To build GRASS on openSUSE:

RPM packages to be installed:

 sudo zypper install bison flex freetype2-devel fftw3-devel gcc-c++ \
   libgdal-devel libgeos-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libtiff-devel \
   man proj libproj-devel readline-devel netcdf-devel ncurses-devel \
   mysql-devel postgresql-devel sqlite-devel unixODBC-devel \
   tcl-devel tk-devel xorg-x11-Mesa-devel libXmu-devel \
   python-numpy python-dateutil python-devel python-opengl \
   python-wxWidgets python-xml python-dateutil wxWidgets-devel \

Source code configuration:

 ./configure \
 	--enable-largefile \
	--with-proj-share=/usr/share/proj \
	--with-cxx \
	--with-lapack=yes \
	--with-x \
	--with-motif \
	--with-gdal=/usr/bin/gdal-config \
	--with-postgres --with-postgres-includes=/usr/include/pgsql \
	--with-mysql --with-mysql-includes=/usr/include/mysql \
	--with-fftw \
	--with-readline \
	--with-netcdf \
	--with-curses \
	--with-geos \
	--with-nls \
	--with-sqlite \
	--with-freetype \
	--with-freetype-includes=/usr/include/freetype2 \
	--with-wxwidgets \
	--with-odbc \

Then compile with "make [-j2]".

Arch Linux

The easiest/fastest way is to build GRASS GIS using AUR: (msieczka: I would recommend my set of PKBUILDs - They are most feature-rich, up-to-date and allow to have various versions installed alongside each other without conflicts.)

But if you want to compile it yourself you have to keep in mind that in Arch Linux the default Python version 3.

python --version
Python 3.3.1

Therefore, to build GRASS GIS (version 7 in this example), we can use either use virtualenv or symlink python2 and python2-config in a given directory. Let's use the latter approach

sudo ln -s /usr/bin/python2 $HOME/usr/bin/python
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/python2-config $HOME/usr/bin/python-config

We can now start building GRASS 7

export PATH=~/usr/bin:$PATH && \
./configure \
--enable-debug \
--enable-64bit \
--with-libs=/usr/lib64  \
--with-cxx \
--with-readline \
--with-zlib-includes="/usr/include/" \
--with-freetype=yes \
--with-freetype-includes="/usr/include/freetype2/" \
--enable-largefile=yes \
--with-gdal=/usr/bin/gdal-config \
--with-proj-share=/usr/share/proj/ \
--with-geos=/usr/bin/geos-config \
--with-cairo \
--with-odbc \
--with-pthread \
--with-liblas=/usr/local/bin/liblas-config  \
--with-fftw-includes="/usr/include/" \
--with-fftw-libs=/usr/lib/ \
--with-tcltk-includes="/usr/include/" \
--with-wxwidgets \
--with-postgres=yes \
--with-postgres-includes="/usr/include/postgresql/internal" \
--with-postgres-libs="/usr/include/postgresql/internal/libpq" \
--with-sqlite=yes \
--with-python=yes \
--with-liblas \

Now let's compile and install it

sudo make install

Now the final step required to use GRASS with python2 is to create a bash script "grass" (or the name you want)

export PATH=~/usr/bin:$PATH
python2 /usr/local/bin/grass70

And make it executable and copy it somewhere in the PATH

chmod+x grass
sudo cp grass /usr/local/bin

It's done, you can enjoy GRASS 7 in Arch, just type "grass" (or the name you gave to the script) in the terminal to launch it.

RPM SPEC files

... see here for instructions


FreeBSD / NetBSD

The recommended compiler tools are GCC, GNU make, GNU coreutils (for install), and flex. All are available through the respective package managing tools (pkg_add for FreeBSD and pkgin install for NetBSD) and for recent *BSD versions most likely installed by default.

GRASS 6.x and GRASS 7 should compile on FreeBSD 8.0 or later and NetBSD 5.0 or later (maybe also on updated NetBSD 4.x).

It is highly recommended to install GDAL/OGR and PROJ4 first. These libraries and tools are available as ports for FreeBSD and packages for NetBSD.

Optional functionality is listed with ./configure --help, and related libraries and tools might need to be installed first.


11 SPARC/i86pc

The recommended compiler tools are GCC, GNU make, GNU coreutils (for install), and flex. All are available through the Solaris package manager.

Most dependencies are available through the Solaris package manager. GDAL and proj4 can either be compiled from source or installed e.g. from OpenCSW. If packages are installed from OpenCSW, the linker flags need to be set with

     LDFLAGS="-Wl,-R/opt/csw/lib -L/opt/csw/lib -Wl,-R/opt/csw/gxx/lib -L/opt/csw/gxx/lib"

See also the OpenCSW documentation.

10 SPARC/i86pc
  • get gcc compiler and tools. There are several sources: Solaris Companion CD (SFW pkg, installs in /opt/sfw/), Blastwave ([2], CSW pkg, installs in /opt/csw/) or Sunfreeware ([3], SMC pkg, installs in /usr/local/).

Needed Packages from Sunfreeware: SMCbinut, SMCbison, SMCcoreu, SMCfindu, SMCflex, SMCgawk, SMCgcc, SMCgrep, SMCgzip, SMCless, SMClibt, SMClicon, SMCmake, SMCncurs, SMCproj, SMCsed, SMCtar, SMCtcl, SMCtiff, SMCtk, SMCunzip, SMCzlib.

  • compile and install fftw-library ([4]). You need to re-compile the library with:
     ./configure --with-pic --enable-shared; make ; make install. 

The pre-built packages don't work.

  • compile and install gdal library (see documentation of gdal, [5]).
  • compile and install any additional libraries (e. g. GEOS, [6]).
  • set compiler flags and path. e. g.:
     # on ultra-sparc machine:
     CFLAGS="-O3 -mcpu=v9"
     CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mcpu=v9"

Path has to be changed for the packages (Sunfreeware: /usr/local/bin, Solaris Companion: /opt/sfw/bin, Blastwave: /opt/csw/bin).

  • Next configure, e. g.:
     ./configure --with-postgres-includes=/usr/include/pgsql/ \
     --with-postgres-libs=/usr/lib --with-postgres=yes \

If you use n(ew)curses, you have to include the path /usr/local/include/ncurses.


     make install

If the shared libraries are not found at runtime of the modules, use 'crle' to add the paths of the libraries for the dynamic linker, e. g. as root:

     crle -l /lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/opt/sfw/lib:/usr/X11/lib

Be careful not to omit a library path, the system may be unusable if you forget the /lib path.


A recent GNU make (>= 3.81) and GNU coreutils are required. These are available with the IBM AIX toolbox or through third-party AIX software repositories, e.g. bullfreeware and Note that 'make' does not work, only 'gmake' works.

General instructions to compile on AIX are e.g. here

GRASS 6: Using the IBM xlc compiler:

Mike wrote in 2009:

After attempting all the suggestions, I finally used --disable-shared on the configure command, and all but a handful of modules successfully compiled. I was able to individually address the ones that failed through Makefile edits and several small source code/header file edits.

The environment variables and configure command that worked were:

# xlc compiler:
export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/opt/freeware/bin:$PATH
export OBJECT_MODE=64
export LIBICONV=/opt/freeware
export CC="xlc_r -q64"
export CFLAGS="-O -qstrict"
export CXX="xlC_r -q64"
export CXXFLAGS="-O -qstrict"
export AR="ar -X64"
export F77="xlf_r -q64"
export CPPFLAGS="-I/afs/isis/pkg/libpng/include -I/usr/local/include -I$LIBICONV/include -I/usr/lpp/X11/include/X11"
export LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/lib -L$LIBICONV/lib -L/usr/lib -L/usr/X11R6/lib -lc"

./configure --prefix=/afs/isis/pkg/grass-6.4.0 \
  --enable-64bit \
  --disable-shared \
  --with-includes="/usr/include/fontconfig /usr/include/X11 /usr/include/X11/Xft /usr/include/X11/ext" \
  --x-includes=/usr/include/X11 \
  --x-libraries=/usr/X11R6/lib \
  --with-fftw-includes=/afs/isis/pkg/fftw-3.2.2/include \
  --with-fftw-libs=/afs/isis/pkg/fftw-3.2.2/lib \
  --with-gdal=/afs/isis/pkg/gdal/bin/gdal-config \
  --with-proj-includes=/afs/isis/pkg/proj/include \
  --with-proj-libs=/afs/isis/pkg/proj/lib \
  --with-proj-share=/afs/isis/pkg/proj/share/proj \
  --with-tcltk-includes=/usr/local/include \
  --with-tcltk-libs=/usr/local/lib \

GRASS 7: Using the IBM xlc compiler:

Get and install (in this order):

The environment variables and configure command that worked:

## AIX 5.x
./configure \
  --prefix=$PREFIX \
  --disable-shared \
  --enable-largefile \
  --with-cxx \
  --with-proj-includes=$PREFIX/include/ \
  --with-proj-libs=$PREFIX/lib/ \
  --with-proj-share=$PREFIX/share/proj/ \
  --with-sqlite \
  --with-sqlite-includes=$PREFIX/include/ \
  --with-sqlite-libs=$PREFIX/lib/ \
  --with-tiff=no \
  --with-png=no \
  --with-fftw=no \
  --with-cairo=no \

GRASS 7: Using the GNU gcc compiler:

Get and install (in this order):

The environment variables and configure command that worked for AIX 5.x:

## AIX 5.x
CFLAGS='-ansi -D_ALL_SOURCE=1 -D_POSIX_SOURCE=1 -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200809L -Dinline=' ./configure \
  --prefix=$PREFIX \
  --disable-shared \
  --enable-largefile \
  --with-cxx \
  --with-proj-includes=$PREFIX/include/ \
  --with-proj-libs=$PREFIX/lib/ \
  --with-proj-share=$PREFIX/share/proj/ \
  --with-sqlite \
  --with-sqlite-includes=$PREFIX/include/ \
  --with-sqlite-libs=$PREFIX/lib/ \
  --with-tiff=no \
  --with-png=no \
  --with-fftw=no \
  --with-cairo=no \

The environment variables and configure command that worked for AIX 7.x:

## AIX 7.x
export CC="gcc"
export CXX="g++"

LDFLAGS="-Wl,-bsvr4,-R,/opt/freeware/lib -L/opt/freeware/lib" CPPFLAGS="-I/opt/freeware/include" ./configure \
  --prefix=$PREFIX \
  --enable-largefile \
  --enable-shared \
  --with-includes=/opt/freeware/include --with-libs=/opt/freeware/lib \
  --with-cxx \
  --with-proj-includes=$PREFIX/include/ \
  --with-proj-libs=$PREFIX/lib/ \
  --with-proj-share=$PREFIX/share/proj/ \
  --with-gdal=$PREFIX/bin/gdal-config \
  --with-sqlite \
  --with-sqlite-libs=$PREFIX/lib --with-sqlite-includes=$PREFIX/include \
  --with-png=no \
  --with-tiff=no \
  --with-fftw=no \
  --with-cairo=no \
  --with-opengl=no \


컴파일 Compile

See also WinGRASS Current Status for latest updates.

일상적인 문제와 해결책들 Common problems and solutions

During compilation, error can occur if certain packages are not installed. Here a list of problems with solution:

  • error: X11/Xlib.h: No such file or directory
    • this suggests that you don't have the X headers installed
    • Solution: Install the libx11-dev package
  • error: g.list: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
    • this error appears in the shell right after the user clicks GUI's "Start GRASS" button. The GUI shows an error about geographic extent and gets closed afterwards.
    • It happens when you launch bin.i686 executable on 64bit system. Be careful and choose the right architecture.

Static compilation

In order to get static rather than dynamically linked binaries, configure like this:

 ./configure --disable-shared --enable-static

This will however break the wxGUI and GRASS 7 completely because "ctypes" wants to link against shared libs, or there is something in the static libs that "ctypes" does not like.

최적화 Optimization

GCC and other compilers support optimization

If you would like to set compiler optimisations, for a possibly faster binary, type (don't enter a ";" anywhere):

       CFLAGS=-O ./configure


       setenv CFLAGS -O

whichever works on your shell. Use -O2 instead of -O if your compiler supports this (note: O is the letter, not zero). Using the "gcc" compiler, you can also specify processor specific flags (examples, please suggest better settings to us):

 CFLAGS="-mcpu=athlon -O2" # AMD Athlon processor with code optimisations
 CFLAGS="-march=amdfam10"  # AMD Phenom II X4 64bit processor with gcc >=4.3
 CFLAGS="-mcpu=pentium"    # Intel Pentium processor
 CFLAGS="-mcpu=pentium4"   # Intel Pentium4 processor
 CFLAGS="-O2 -msse -msse2 -mfpmath=sse -minline-all-stringops" # Intel XEON 64bit processor
 CFLAGS="-mtune=nocona -m64 -minline-all-stringops"            # Intel Pentium 64bit processor

To find out optional CFLAGS for your platform, enter:

 gcc -dumpspecs

See also:

A real fast GRASS version (and small binaries) will be created with LDFLAGS set to "stripping" (but this disables debugging):

 CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=<cpu_see_above> -Wall" LDFLAGS="-s" ./configure

Configure options and their meanings

For configure there are many options and some GRASS modules are built only if some options are set. Here are listed common configuration options with short explanation.

  • --prefix=/path - Sets path where GRASS will be installed. GRASS will reside in /path/grass-version.
  • --enable-largefile - Enables large (>2Gb on 32bit systems) support. For current large file support status look at Large File Support page.
  • --with-cxx - Enables compilation of C++ code. Required for r.terraflow module.
  • --with-readline - Enables readline support. If readline is enabled, you can use its history/editing facilities when entering r.mapcalc expressions on stdin.
  • --with-glw - Enables GLw support. The GLw library provides OpenGL "canvas" widgets for Athena and Motif.
That switch is unnecessary for normal compilation. It's only
required for r3.showdspf, which isn't normally built; if you 
want it, you have build it manually 
(e.g. "make -C raster3d/r3.showdspf").
As similar functionality is now provided by NVIZ, r3.showdspf
is deprecated.
r3.showdspf uses the Motif widget (so you also need a 
Motif library, e.g. Lesstif or OpenMotif).
Glynn Clements at GRASS-user mailing list

다중 코어 CPUs상의 병렬 컴파일 Parallelized compilation on multi-core CPUs

You can dramatically accelerate the compilation of the GRASS code with the -j flag of "make" if you have a multi-core CPU system. This determines the maximum number of jobs to have running at once, so cores don't have to sit idle waiting for jobs on other cores to complete. A good rule of thumb for this value is number_of_cores * 1.5, but note that setting any higher than the actual number of cores will only affect the timing slightly. For example, on a dual-core processor:

 make -j 4



Please note that the installation of Addons can be easily done with the g.extension manager. The compile instructions below are aiming at own development.

Compiled C modules



  • a binary GRASS package, or
  • source code which has been prepared with:
   ./configure [opionally flags]
   make libs

Each of the addon modules should come with a Makefile. To compile it, just run:

   make MODULE_TOPDIR=/path/to/grass64/

If using Bash it may be useful to set that up as an alias:

   alias gmake64='make MODULE_TOPDIR=/path/to/grass64/'

Installation (perhaps requires "sudo"):

   make MODULE_TOPDIR=/path/to/grass64/ install

Note: Compiled addons may require a re-compilation if you changed/updated your GRASS standard binaries.

If binary comes with a -dev package

(work in progress, this text states how it eventually will be :) Nowadays one does not need to the source code, nor compiling GRASS by oneself to be able to add add-ons. On Debian, you can just install the grass-dev package and then run:

make MODULE_TOPDIR=/usr/lib/grass64/ INST_DIR=/usr/lib/grass64/

The grass-dev package essentially provides GRASS's include header files and Make configuration files.


If the addon module is a script, it is sufficient to copy it into the (GRASS binaries) path somewhere. Alternatively, install addons into a separate GRASS addons binaries/scripts directory which is easier to maintain. It avoids getting clobbered every time you reinstall GRASS. To use these separately stored scripts, set and export the GRASS_ADDON_PATH environment variable before starting GRASS and it will automatically be added to the module search path (see the variables help page). To simplify this, do for example:

# add in $HOME/.bashrc:

Make sure that the script is executable, then just call it in GRASS typing the filename. Python scripts need to be called writing the extension as well, like:

GRASS 6.5.svn (spearfish60):~ >