# Image processing/it

This page is in progress of translating to Italiano from English.

## Introduzione

Per una descrizione generale, vedi imageryintro - "Introduction: image processing] in GRASS GIS"

### Introduzione generale

**Numeri digitali e valori fisici (riflessione/radianza-al-sensore):**

Le immagini da satellite sono comunemente fornite come numeri digitali (Digital Numbers - DN) per minimizzare il volume di memoria, cioè il valore fisico analogico campionato in origine (colore, temperatura, etc) è memorizzato come una rappresentazione discreta in 8-16 bit. Per esempio, i dati Landsat vengono memorizzati come valori a 8bit (cioè in un intervallo da 0 a 255); i dati di altri satelliti possono essere memorizzati a 10 o 16 bit.
I dati in forma di DN non sono ancora dati reali rilevati al suolo.
Tali dati sono detti "al satellite"; per esempio, la quantità di energia rilevata dal sensore della piattaforma satellitare è codificata in 8 o più bit. Questa energia è detta radianza al sensore. Al fine di ottenere valori fisici dai DN, i fornitori di immagini satellitari usano un'equazione di trasformazione lineare `(y = a * x + b)` per codificare la radianza al sensore in valori da 8 a 16 bit. I DN si possono riconvertire in valori fisici applicando la formula inversa `(x = (y - b) / a)`.

Il modulo di GRASS GIS i.landsat.toar trasforma facilmente i DN Landsat in radiance-at-sensor. Il modulo equivalente per i dati ASTER è i.aster.toar. Per altri satelliti si può usare r.mapcalc.

**Riflessone/radianza-al-sensore e riflettanza della superficie**

Una volta ottenuta la radianza-al-sensore, still the atmosphere influences the signal as recorded at the sensor. This atmospheric interaction with the sun energy reflected back into space by ground/vegetation/soil needs to be corrected. There are two ways to apply atmospheric correction for satellite imagery. The simple way for Landsat is with i.landsat.toar, using the DOS correction method. The more accurate way is using i.atcorr (which works for many satellite sensors). The atmospherically corrected sensor data represent surface reflectance, which ranges theoretically from 0 % to 100 %. Note that this level of data correction is the proper level of correction to calculate vegetation indices.

### Image processing in GRASS GIS

Satellite imagery and orthophotos (aerial photographs) are handled in GRASS as raster maps and specialized tasks are performed using the **imagery** (i.*) modules. All general operations are handled by the raster modules.

- imageryintro: A short introduction to image processing in GRASS 6
- Full GRASS 4.0 Image Processing manual (PDF, 47 pages)
- imagery: Imagery module help pages

- Data import is generally handled by the r.in.gdal module

## Screenshots

- The imagery screenshots page

## Importing

The wxGUI offers a convenient tool for single map and bulk import:

- see Importing data

### Satellite Data

#### Ocean Color

#### Sea Surface Temperature (SST)

#### High Resolution Data

Commercial satellite imagery

See also,

- Spectral Response specifications for IKONOS, GeoEye, QuickBird, WorldView
- various Whitepapers on High Resolution Satellite Imagery

### Orthophotos

The wxGUI offers a convenient tool for single map and bulk import:

- see Importing data

## Preprocessing

See also NASA LaRC Satellite Overpass Predictor

### Geometric preprocessing/Georectification

- Georectification tool is available from the File menu in the GUI.
- i.points, i.vpoints (scanned maps, satellite images)
- i.ortho.photo (aerial images)

A multi-band image may be grouped and georectified with a single set of ground control points (i.group, i.target, i.rectify).

See also the Georeferencing wiki page

### Orthorectification

### Radiometric preprocessing

- use r.mapcalc to apply gain/bias formula
- LANDSAT: you can also use i.landsat.toar
~~from GRASS AddOns~~(included since 6.4)

### Correction for atmospheric effects

Visit the dedicated page on Atmospheric correction

#### Related Modules

- i.landsat.dehaze: simple dark-object/Tasseled Cap based haze minimization (from GRASS AddOns)
- i.atcorr: more complex correction but based on atmospheric models

### Correction for topographic/terrain effects

In rugged terrain, such correction might be useful to minimize negative effects.

- simple "cosine correction" using r.sunmask, r.mapcalc (tends to overshoot when slopes are high)
- In i.topo.corr the following correction methods are implemented: cosine, minnaert, percent, c-factor.
**Note,**that for the sun's zenith (in degrees) parameter, the equation "**Sun's Zenith**=**90**-**Sun's Elevation**" is generally valid

Examples:

- Topographic correction of Landsat imagery using GRASS GIS (Blog article)

### Cloud removal

- with i.landsat.acca

## Image classification

See the dedicated Image classification page.

## Image segmentation

- i.smap: Performs contextual image classification using sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) estimation
- i.segment: Image Segmentation
- r.smooth.seg: Performs image segmentation and discontinuity detection (based on the Mumford-Shah variational model) (addon)
- i.superpixels.slic: : Perform image segmentation using the SLIC segmentation method (addon)

## Edge detection

## Filtering

## Fourier Transform

- i.fft, i.ifft
- see also Image destriping
- see also Fourier transforms for multitemporal analysis

## Canonical Component Analysis

## Principal Component Analysis

- i.pca
- see also Principal Components Analysis

## Texture

A series of commonly used texture measures (derived from the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix, GLCM), also called Haralick's texture features are available:

- r.texture: In case of panchromatic maps or limited amount of channels, it is often recommended to generate synthetic channels through texture analysis

See here and here for the formulas to calculate texture. See also canopy texture mapping.

## Spectral unmixing

- i.spec.unmix is used to perform "Spectral Unmixing"
- i.spec.sam is used to perform "Spectral Angle Mapping"

## Thermal remote sensing

- r.mapcalc can be used to convert from DN (digital number) of arbitrary sensors to Kelvin/Celsius/...
- i.landsat.toar - Calculates top-of-atmosphere radiance or reflectance and temperature for Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI
- i.landsat8.swlst (src) Practical split-window algorithm estimating Land Surface Temperature from Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imagery
- i.aster.toar - Calculates top-of-atmosphere radiance or reflectance and temperature for ASTER
- MODIS

## Time series analysis

- r.series- Makes each output cell value a function of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.
- see also Time series
- see also Time series development
- see also MODIS

## Enhancements

### Radiometric Enhancements

- i.landsat.rgb (GRASS 6.x) | i.colors.enhance (GRASS 7.x)
- Decorrelation stretching with r.colors or r.mapcalc
- Density slicing with r.colors
- Principal Component Analysis with i.pca

### Geometric Enhancements - Image Fusion - Pansharpening - Image Segmentation

Image fusion and Pansharpening:

- i.pansharpen: Image fusion algorithms to sharpen multispectral with high-res panchromatic channels
- i.rgb.his and i.his.rgb: can be used for image fusion

Segmentation:

- r.smooth.seg which performs image segmentation and discontinuity detection (based on the Mumford-Shah variational model). The module generates a piece-wise smooth approximation of the input raster map and a raster map of the discontinuities of the output approximation. The discontinuities of the output approximation are preserved from being smoothed. (Addons)
- i.segment: Identifies segments (objects) from imagery data (GRASS 7)

### Optimal channel selection for color composites

## Vegetation indices

## Water indices

- i.wi: Calculates different types of water indices (addon)

## Biomass indices

## Evapotranspiration

- i.eb.* and i.evapo.* are modules dedicated to evapotranspiration, see topic_evapotranspiration.

Please look at Image_processing/Evapotranspiration for some background information.

## Stereo anaglyphs

- see Stereo anaglyphs

## Ideas collection for improving GRASS' Image processing capabilities

Below modules need some tuning before being added to GRASS 6. Volunteers welcome.

### libCTL - Library for affine, Helmert and projective transformations in 2D

To be evaluated: plain C translation https://svn.code.sf.net/p/gvsigce/code/trunk/libraries/libCTL/

- requires GNU Scientific Library for the matrix algebra
- It is a small library that provides a handful of transformation methods from source to target (2D) coordinates. Currently, this includes affine, Helmert and projective transformations in 2D.
- The main library is written in plain C and the transformation functions are a plain C conversion of the methods found in the QGIS (www.qgis.org) Georeferencer Plugin (projective and Helmert transformations) and Olivier Dalang's "worldfile transform" (https://gist.github.com/olivierdalang/ba97fc986ade4545068d).
- author: B Ducke

### Spectral unmixing ideas for processing hyperspectral image data

- Make use of the Spectral Python (SPy) which is a pure Python module for processing hyperspectral image data

### Spectral angle mapping ideas

### Geocoding ideas

- i.homography: geocoding with lines (instead of points) with homography (as improved i.points; it was formerly called i.linespoints)
- support splines from GDAL (see GRASS_AddOns#Imagery_add-ons)
- New Georectifier: see also http://gama.fsv.cvut.cz/~landa/grass/swf/georect.html

### Image matching ideas

- i.points.auto: automated search of GCPs based on FFT correlation (as improved i.points)

*Reference:*M. Neteler, D. Grasso, I. Michelazzi, L. Miori, S. Merler, and C. Furlanello, 2005: An integrated toolbox for image registration, fusion and classification. International Journal of Geoinformatics, 1(1), pp. 51-61 PDF

### Image classification ideas

- pr: C code for classification problems
- GRASS implementation: i.pr.* source code is available here)

### Stereo ideas

This is stand-alone stereo modeling software (DEM extraction etc). Waits for integration into GRASS.

### Bundle block adjustment

Needed to orthorectify a series aerial images taken sequentially with overlap. "Historical" method which is nowadays interesting for UAV flights with octocopters and such.

Automatec GPC search could be done by "auto-sift".

Available: Octave code which prepares input to an i.ortho.photo batch job (contact Markus Neteler).

### Lidar LAS format

LAS Tools by M. Isenburg, Howard Butler et al.: http://www.liblas.org

las2txt | r.in.xyz in=- fs=" "

*Update:* r.in.lidar and v.in.lidar implemented by Markus Metz (GRASS 7), but las2txt is still useful for added control such as filtering or importing secondary data streams such as intensity.

(see LIDAR)

### Improving the existing code

It might be sensible to merge the various image libraries:

- GRASS 6 standard libs:
- lib/imagery/: standard lib, in use (i.* except for i.points3, i.rectify3, see below)
- imagery/i.ortho.photo/libes/: standard lib, in use (i.ortho.photo, photo.*)

- GRASS 5 (! only) image3 lib:
- libes/image3/: never finished improvement which integrated the standard lib and the ortho lib. Seems to provide also ortho rectification for satellite data (i.points3, i.rectify3)

- GRASS 5/6 image proc commands:
- merge of i.points, i.vpoints, i.points3 (see above)
- merge of i.rectify and i.rectify3 (see above)
~~addition of new resampling algorithms such as bilinear, cubic convolution (take from r.proj or r.resamp.aggreg)~~(done 10/2010)- add other warping methods (maybe lanczos or thin splines from GDAL?): Addons#i.warp
- implement/finish linewise ortho-rectification of satellite data

## Bibliography

- Search for "GRASS GIS Image processing" - Google Scholar
- Search for "GRASS GIS Remote Sensing" - Google Scholar